Organizing the Credit and Customer Receivable Management Function

Emphais on the job to be done is the essential consideration in making the proper assignment of personnel to spots on the organizational chart. The aim mst be to allocate effectively the total functions and responsibilities of the personnel.

Now more than ever employers need motivated, qualified employees. The best way to accomplish this is for the employer to have a concise knowledge and a plan of what their staffing needs are. Based on the plan, the recruitment process is clearer and more successful because employers can detail their exact needs and the qualifications required to perform those needs. Recruits have an accurate knowledge of the job they are applying for, the knowledge of what is expected of them, whom they report to, the skills needed for the position, the salary range of the position and the advancement potential within the organization. When this criteria is met, an exact job fit is possible leading to satisfaction and motivation thereby, a decrease in corporate turnover.

The first stage to begin the staffing function of an organization should begin with a thorough understanding of the tasks, skills and qualifications required to do the job. This clarification leads to a successful selection process with a qualified person who has the ability to fill a job’s requirements. The job analysis and job description are the tools that allow for this process.

The Job Analysis

The job analysis identifies a job’s requirements into component parts by specifying what is done on the job and what is needed in order for the job to be done satisfactorily. A job analysis is the systematic investigation of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities required in a job and the necessary skills, knowledge and abilities needed to perform the job adequately. One way to begin the job analysis, is to list the requirements of the job:

  • Work activities (where and how the worker gets the information to perform the job)
  • Behaviors required (what levels of reasoning are necessary to do the job)
  • Working Conditions (what physical activities are performed)
  • Interaction with others (what interactions with others are required to perform the job)
  • Performance expected (what is the level of responsibility given to the employee and what level of supervision is given and received)
  • Machines and Equipment used (what skills are necessary to get the job done)
  • Anything else relevant to do the job.

The most effective way to collect this data is by watching the person who currently holds the position, interview those who perform the tasks and those that interact with that position, and finally the person who is responsible for management of that position. If there is any past documentation on this position, it may be used as a guide, but remember, organizations are dynamic and always evolving as do the specific tasks. Job analysis should be conducted on a periodic basis to ensure it is up to date and valid.

TIP

When job analysis and job descriptions are being done for jobs that already exist, but have no documentation, it may be difficult to initially get the information required due to suspicion on the part of the employee and manager for the particular position being examined. It may help to reassure them that the documentation is necessary to validate selection criteria to the EEOC, to assess training needs, to determine pay ranges and to allow for an accurate performance appraisal.

For newly created positions, an outline should be constructed using the above criteria, requirements of the job, as a guide. Rather than having an idea of what the job would entail and how it will probably be done, it is best to think through the steps above, be as accurate and concise as possible. After a six month period, it is helpful to redo the job analysis and job description based on the realities of how things really are, not the idea of what they would be.

In Summary The Process For Conducting A Job Analysis Is:

  • Identify the job and review existing documentation
  • Explain the process to managers and employees that will be usied to collect the data. This information reduces the stress and suspicion that may arise when people are asked to describe their job.
  • Analyze the job
  • Use this data to write a job description

The Job Description

The job description should be drafted based on the specifications of the job analysis. It should indicate what, why, where, and how a job is to be done.

The Main Features Of The Job Description Are:

  • Identification of the job title, department and reporting relationships (when applicable, include the date of the last job analysis, a job number, the present number of employees in that position and the pay scale).
  • A description of the general responsibilities and components.
  • Specific duties, tasks and responsibilities (including materials or machinery used, working conditions, or special instruments required).
  • Identification of performance-related job tasks and critical skills. These skills should be broken down by the knowledge needed to perform the job function, the proficiency level required in each skill area (basic, intermediate, or advanced), and the level of responsibility for each task.
  • Specific education and experience required.
  • Any additional requirements for the job (such as travel requirements).

Use of Action Verbs in Job Descriptions

When writing a job description, it is important to use action verbs to describe the tasks and to have duties grouped together that have a logical flow. The following guide could be used when preparing the “specific duties” area of the job description:

  • Begin with the action verb
  • State what does it apply to
  • State how the information is obtained
  • State how, why and how often is it done.

Example:

action verb what it applies to how the information is obtained how, why and how often
Analyzes requests for credit received from customers and credit information sources by evaluating financial statements, credit reports, and reference information, to establish a workable credit line every six months.

When job analysis and job description systems are in place, staffing requirements and future staffing plans are possible. The recruitment process is clear because the requirements and qualifications of the position are defined. The salary range has already been determined, eliminating wasted time of interviewing candidates who have salary expectations and needs beyond your range. The most qualified candidate may then be selected. The candidate has a clear knowledge of the job requirements, to whom they report and how it relates to the other functions of an organization. Many times, the career path is also defined and career planning by the employee becomes possible, making the job opening more desirable and recruitment of qualified candidates an easier process.

When a job analysis and job description are done for a position that is already filled but no documentation exists, the analysis and description may be used to assess any training needs and assist in establishing training programs. Performance appraisals, based on the requirements of a job analysis and job description, have more validity because the parameters of the tasks and skills required to do the tasks have already been defined. A clear benchmark exists. Areas that need improvement may be identified and the training process may begin. The employee also has a clear view of what is expected, how they are doing, and where improvement is needed. This knowledge empowers an employee to determine a realistic career path.

The importance of the job analysis and job description extends beyond the selection process. By providing a definition of the component parts of a job, boundaries are set and confusion is limited concerning what is supposed to be done and who is responsible. Important aspects of the job analysis and job description include:

  • Defining component parts of a job to eliminate confusion regarding
  • Providing legal protection to the employer with documentation
  • Assisting in developing and selecting training programs
  • Determining an equitable pay range for the position
  • Improving the accuracy of the performance appraisal for the specific position.

One way to ensure compliance with the EEOC is to have a clear plan and backup to address the criteria employers use in making employment related decisions in the initial selection process, promotions, layoffs and termination actions by employers. The job analysis, and job description (especially when used with performance appraisals in a termination) can provide legitimate reasoning for the actions taken by a company when selecting, promoting or terminating employees.

Together, they provide a work environment that has clear descriptions of what is expected on the job and how well these expectations are being met.


Job Analysis Worksheet

1. Official Title of Position


2. Classification of Position

__ Part time __ Seasonal
__ Full time __ Exempt
__ Permanent __ Non-exempt
__ Temporary

3. Title of immediate supervisor


4. Title of next management level


5. Department or area of responsibility


6. Division, Section, Unit (where applicable)


7. Schedule of Hours


8. The task is determined by:

    What action is performed?




    Who or what is affected?




    What is produced?




    What equipment is needed?




    What the process is?




    What knowledge, and level (basic, intermediate, or advanced) is needed to perform the job?




    What specific abilities and skills are needed to perform the job?




    What minimum level of education and experience is required?




    How much time and what source of training is needed?




9. If the position is a supervisory one, indicate the number and title of employees to be supervised.







10. The extent of supervision for the position being examined (e.g., assignment of work, review of work, approval of work, training, performance evaluations, hiring, promoting, firing, disciplinary actions, procedures, work flow management).




11. Any and all guidelines needed for completion of task.




12. Who will supervise this position and the extent of the required supervision (e.g., assignment of work, review of work, approval of work, training, performance evaluations, hiring, promoting, firing, disciplinary actions, procedures, work flow management)?




13. Accountability: Through what processes are errors found (e.g., to whom is work handed-off) and who is responsible for the corrections?




14. Are unusual physical demands required in this position (e.g., heavy lifting)?




15. What are the working conditions to perform the job (e.g., environment, office, warehouse, etc.)?




16. Is the safety of others a responsibility of this position?




17. What type of interaction is there with others, how often, with whom, why?




18. Extent of exposure to confidential information and possible effects of breech classified information?




19. Any other requirements (e.g., travel, extensive overtime, etc.)?





Job Description Worksheet

1. Official Title of Position and Department


2. To whom does the position report

3. If a supervisory role, how many are supervised and their function (e.g., supervisory responsibility for 3 collections specialist, 2 credit analysts etc.)?







4. General objective; use action verbs such as: establish, prepare, conduct, analyze, etc. (e.g., To establish credit policies and practices and to administer all levels of credit administration.)




5. Specific duties (use answers from question 8 of the Job Analysis Worksheet)




6. Education requirement for position and level of experience (e.g., BS in Business, Certified Credit Executive, plus three years experience with a proven track record for decreasing average days delinquent)




7. Any additional requirements




8. List salary range


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